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Kabyle / Berber Pronouns

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Kabyle/Berber Pronouns

Here is a chapter the way I like it, which I really take pleasure in writing because it is easy and you can learn many things through, a real delight.

This is a very important chapter to know because it’s rich in language learning and plus easy to grasp and is the cherry on top. Once arrived at the end of the course, you’ll succeed in forming simple sentences in kabyle! What more can you ask for!?

Simple sentences in kabyle? That’s it ?! I want to know how to form complicated ones, if it’s to learn how to say "azul fellawen" then no thanks; I am not wasting my time reading your worthless chapter! Heyyy calm down...trust me, if you follow my courses carefully from A to Z and that you learn the vocabulary put at your disposition, I promise you that from now to a few days you’ll surprise your friends and family!

So you trust me? Yes!!! Louder I can’t hear you, YES!!! Well look who’s feeling better J here we go...

Do you know how to say «me» in kabyle? There are 3 ways to say it, you might just know one of three, we have : "nek", "nekki" et "nekkini".

Because I’m in good shape (plus it’s 2 am) and sweet. I am going to give you the full list of the personal pronouns.

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

nekk, nekki, nekkini (me, I)

kečč, keččini (you)

netta (him)

nekk, nekki, nekkini (me, I)

kemm, kemmini (you)

nettat (her)

nek°ni (we)

kunwi (you)

nitni, nutni (them)

nekk°enti (we)

kunemti (you)

nitenti, nutenti (them)

Nek hadraγ taqbaylit = (Me) I speak Kabyle.

Kunwi t-tafaem taqbaylit = you, you are learning Kabyle.

Possessive Pronouns :

I am going to teach you three types of possessive pronouns.

1- Bound form possessive pronouns : which are bound with a hyphen to the noun.

2- Independant or autonomous possessive pronouns : which can be placed before or after the noun with which it is related.

3- Possessive pronouns with nouns of relation : which have a particular form in kabyle and berber in general, but nothing hard I assure you right away J. Just a small remark, related nouns that begin with a vowel use the bound form pronouns (iw, ik, is, im, ...).

Get motivated and get on to the first of the possessive pronouns,

▪ -1- Bound form possessive pronouns

Masculine

Feminine

-iw (my)

-ik (your)

-is (his)

-nneγ (our)

-nnwen (your) plur.

-nnsen (their)

-iw (my)

-im (your)

-is (her)

-nnteγ (our)

-nnk°ent (your) plur.

-nnsent (their)

Example :

tameṭṭut-iw = my wife

lqahwa-nneγ = our coffee (masc)

lqahwa-nnteγ = our cofee (fém)

taγect-is= his/her song

tuγac-is = their song

taγat-im = your goat (fem)

taγat-ik = your goat (masc)

ulawen-nnk°ent = your hearts (fem plur)

ulawen-nnwen = your hearts (masc plur)

ul-iw = my heart

axxam-nnsen = their house

Did you get it? Should be a yes unless you’re doing it on purpose! Moving on to the next part...

▪ -2- Independant or autonomous possessive pronouns

Masculine

Feminine

inu (my, mine)

inek (your, yours)

ines (his)

nneγ (our, ours)

nnwen (your, yours) plur.

nnsen (their, theirs)

inu (my, mine)

inem (your, yours)

ines (her, hers)

nnteγ (our, ours)

nnk°ent (your, yours) plur.

nnsent (their, theirs)

Remark : what I put in green are the autonomous possessive pronouns which are similar to the bound form possessive pronouns. In general, if you keep in mind the bound form possessive pronouns you would have learnt 50% of the autonomous possessive pronouns J.

Don’t forget that independant or autonomous possessive pronouns can be placed before or after the noun to which it is attached.

Examples :

. Aγum agi nneγ = this bread here is ours (or this is our bread)

or

. Nneγum agi = this bread here is ours (or this is our bread) => when using the annexation state, we get "nneγ waγṛum agi"

. Axxam agi nnwen = this house here is yours (or this is your house)

or

. Nnwen axxam agi = this house here is yours (or this is your house) => when using the annexation state, we get "nnewen waxxam agi".

Hey wise guy! Why did you add "agi", it wasn’t part of the course! So what is it? Ok I’ll explain it to you; actually it’s just a demonstrative adjective. The "agi" is equivalant to here in english, I’ll get back to it later with more details.

▪ -3- Possessive pronouns with nouns of relation

Someone who doesn’t speak Kabyle very well, and who knows the bound form and independant or autonomous possessive pronouns, would say for example "baba inek" for "your father"; where actually in kabyle we don’t say it that way!:) but rather baba-k.

Here is a table that lists all of the possessive pronouns of relation so you never go wrong again!

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

....... (my)

-k (your)

-s (his)

....... (my)

-m (your)

-s (her)

-tneγ (our)

-twen (your)

-tsen (their)

-nteγ (our)

-tk°ent (your)

-tsent (their)

You have noticed that I put nothing for (my), well that’s because you should use the noun of relation just how it is; gma = my brother, yemma = my mother,....only if the noun of relation begins with a vowel then we use the bound for possessive pronouns (iw, ik, ...).

I will give you two complete examples of to understand and know how to use the possessive pronouns of relation by following the table below; then an example of when the noun of relation starts with a vowel.

=> An example with gma = my brother

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

gma (my brother)

gma-k (your brother)

gma-s (his brother)

gma (my brother)

gma-m (your brother)

gma-s (her brother)

gma-tneγ (our brother)

gma-twen (your brother)

gma-tsen (their brother)

gma-nteγ (our brother)

gma-tk°ent (your brother)

gma-tsent (their brother)

=> An example with yemma = my mother

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

yemma (my mother)

yemma-k (your mother)

yemma-s (his mother)

yemma (my mother)

yemma-m (your mother)

yemma-s (her mother)

yemma-tneγ (our mother)

yemma-twen (your mother)

yemma-tsen (their mother)

yemma-nteγ (our mother)

yemma-tk°ent (your mother)

yemma-tsent (their mother)

You have seen how to use the table of possessive pronouns of relation with the two examples above, we use the same exact method to follow with baba= my father, weltma= my sister, xali= mon oncle, jeddi= grandfather, setti= grandmother...etc. except when the noun of relation begins with a vowel, in this case it’s different, we should proceed by using the bound form possessive pronouns, here is an example with ayyaw = my nephew.

Ayyaw begins with a vowel as a result we use the bound form possessive pronouns table (I know I am being repetitive but it’s to be sure you have understood).

Masculine

Feminine

ayyaw-iw (my nephew)

ayyaw-ik (your nephew)

ayyaw-is (his nephew)

ayyaw-nneγ (our nephew)

ayyaw-nnwen (your nephew)

ayyaw-nnsen (their nephew)

ayyaw-iw (my nephew)

ayyaw-im (your nephew)

ayyaw-is (her nephew)

ayyaw-nnteγ (our nephew)

ayyaw-nnk°ent (your nephew)

ayyaw-nnsent (their nephew)

Practice by using the same thing with : xalti = my aunt and aegg°al = my father-in-law or brother-in-law.

I’ll enlighten you a little, for "xalti" use the table of the possessive pronouns of relation, as for "aegg°al" you have noticed it starts with a vowel, so you should use the bound form possessive pronouns table!

If you have carefully followed the course all the way through you’ll experience no difficulties doing them, and if you still have a few problems then reread the course, or use the forum to ask your questions.

Come on friends we’re moving on to the next, the course isn’t going to make itself! And plus we haven’t much left before the end of the chapter, so a little more effort and it’ll be over.

Demonstrative Pronouns :

Like the nouns, the kabyle demonstrative pronouns have gender, number, and a state.

Here are the essentials to know :

=> To express proximity

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

wa, wagi (this)

ta, tagi (this)

wigi, wigini (these)

tigi, tigini (these)

=> To express remoteness

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Fminine

Masculine

Feminine

wihin, wihenna (that)

tihin, tihinna (that)

wigad-ihi, widak-ihin, wigad-inna (those)

tigad-ihin, tidak-ihin, tigad-inna (those)

=> To express an absence or mention of

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

winna, win (the one, that person)

tin, tinna (the one, that person)

wid, widni, widak-nni (those people)

tid, tidak-nni, tidnni (those people)

To refer to an object in kabyle, we use aya, ayagi (this, this here) for proximity and ayen, ayenni for an absence or mention of.

Example :

Ayen i amelaγ yeceba = what I love is beautiful.

Tinna