Articles - English / Kabyle par IMANE

Kabyle Demonstratives, Presentatives

Kabyle / Berber Demonstratives, Presentatives, and Indefinites

What is mr smarty pants going to come up with next ? I wonder.

Now don’t be frightened, everything is going to be fine, don’t let the slightly barbaric title, at first glacne, get to you, in fact this is one of the easiest chapters you’ll learn, reassured ?.... good.

To be brief, we can say that in this chapter, among others, you will learn how to refer to a person or object (this, that...) and alot more of other small remarks that will really help in communicating the language.

If you’re ready we’ll get into action by starting with demonstratives.

Demonstratives

The Kabyle demonstratives are constant and suffixed to the noun (noun + demonstrative).

I wanted to make you another table but thought you’ve already had enough J so I decided to come up with something else for the sake of change.

Proximity :

a

agi => this, these

agini

- Example :

aγrum a / agi / agini = this bread or this bread here

taqcict a / agi / agini = this girl

argaz a / agi / agini = this man

ixxamen a / agi / agini = these houses

Remoteness :

ihin

ihinna => that, those

inna

- Example :

taddart ihin / ihinna / inna = that village or that village there.

tuddar ihin / ihinna / inna =those villages or those villages there.

Absence :

nni = in question, of whom we talk

- Example :

argaz nni = the man in question.

irgazen nni = the men of whom we talk.

So guys doing great ? wasn’t very difficult right ? I can even say it was a piece of cake J

Before we start on presentatives, I was wondering if these words below tell you anything :

wa, wagi, ta, tagi, tihin, ...etc

We’ve already seen them, if you got and followed all my courses, you’ll guess first hand what they are! I’am sure that most of you got them right, for the rest I advise you to revisit the chapter on pronouns, notably the demonstrative pronouns. For the slackers ( like me lol) I’ve done a little copy/paste of the demonstrative pronouns right below to conclude on this part of the course about demonstratives.

Demonstrative Pronouns :

=> To express proximity

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

wa, wagi (this)

ta, tagi (this)

wigi, wigini (these)

tigi, tigini (these)

=> To express remoteness

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Fminine

Masculine

Feminine

wihin, wihenna (that)

tihin, tihinna (that)

wigad-ihi, widak-ihin, wigad-inna (those)

tigad-ihin, tidak-ihin, tigad-inna (those)

=> To express an absence or mention of

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Masculine

Feminine

winna, win (the one, that person)

tin, tinna (the one, that person)

wid, widni, widak-nni (those people)

tid, tidak-nni, tidnni (those people)

Presentatives

Here we are starting with presentatives, it’s true they are not part of english grammar. They are terms exactly like the one at the begining of the sentence, "Here we are" is a presentative, and here are it’s brothers and sisters lol!

aql-i, aql-iyi = here I’am

aql-ak, aql-ik = here you are (masc)

aql-akem, aql-ikem = here you are (fem)

ha-t, a-t = here he is

ha-tt, a-tt = here she is

aql-aγ = here we are

aql-ak°en, aql-ik°en = here they are (masc)

aql-ak°ent, aql-ik°ent = here they are (fem)

ha-ten, a-ten = here they are (masc)

ha-tent, a-tent = here they are (fém)

I feel like going a bit deeper with presentatives but I don’t want to confuse you, learn this, it’s the main thing to know, so learn it by heart.

Without further a due, we pass on to the indefinites, if you may...

Indefinites

nnien = other

waye, win nnien = another, the other (masc)

taye, tin nnien = another, the other (fem)

wiya, wiyi, wid nnien = the others, other (masc plur)

tiya, tiyiḍ, ti nnien = the others, other (fem plur)

Do you want some more or should I just stop here and end the chapter ? I hear voices in the back who want me to stop ! You slackers, seriously. Never in my life have I seen students as lazy as you ! Because I have to I’ll continue and you better understand everything because a load of homework is coming your way next week ! J

acemma = nothing, a bit

ak° = all, at all

albeε = certain, any

ayennat = thing, gizmo (masc)

tayennatt = thing, gizmo (fem)

ed = someone, no one

kra = some, something

kul = every

medden = us, people

winnat = a somebody (masc)

tinnat = a somebody (fem)

yiwen = someone, no one (masc)

yiwet = someone, no one (fem)

 

 

I’ll be nice; I stop here, so don’t forget to carefully revise this chapter for next week because a 4 hour homework awaits you!

 

Good luck revising